Cloud functions is a Functions-as-a-Service (FaaS). Simply put, you write a function and use a trigger to run it. Of course, Google security is based on the principle of least privilege.
Cloud functions are triggered by: HTTP Triggers, Cloud Pub/Sub Triggers, Cloud Storage Triggers, Direct Triggers, Cloud Firestore, Analytics for Firebase, Firebase Realtime Database, Firebase Authentication
Currently supported languages: Node.js, python, Go, Java
Why we use Cloud Functions
We like the “pay what you use” system. Once a function is triggered within 100 milliseconds it will run on a server in the selected location. Once the function runs out, it simply shuts down and continues to pay nothing.
The important thing is the auto-scaling of the feature scales as many times as needed to run out in a reasonable timeframe, it’s also great that this feature can be limited if the services the feature uses don’t keep up or hit limits.
The fundamental advantage is that with Cloud Functions we absolutely don’t have to deal with the server part.More information can be found here.